Quantum-inspired Multi-Parameter Adaptive Bayesian Estimation for Sensing and Imaging

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Abstract

It is well known in Bayesian estimation theory that the conditional estimator attains the minimum mean squared error (MMSE) for estimating a scalar parameter of interest. In quantum, e.g., optical and atomic, imaging and sensing tasks the user has access to the quantum state that encodes the parameter. The choice of a measurement operator, i.e. a positive-operator valued measure (POVM), leads to a measurement outcome on which the aforesaid classical MMSE estimator is employed. Personick found the optimum POVM that attains the MMSE= over all possible physically allowable measurements and the resulting MMSE [1]. This result from 1971 is less-widely known than the quantum Fisher information (QFI), which lower bounds the variance of an unbiased estimator over all measurements without considering any prior probability. For multi-parameter estimation, in quantum Fisher estimation theory the inverse of the QFI matrix provides an operator lower bound on the covariance of an unbiased estimator, and this bound is understood in the positive semidefinite sense. However, there has been little work on quantifying the quantum limits and measurement designs, for multi-parameter quantum estimation in a Bayesian setting. In this work, we build upon Personick's result to construct a Bayesian adaptive (greedy) measurement scheme for multiparameter estimation. We illustrate our proposed measurement scheme with the application of localizing a cluster of point emitters in a highly sub-Rayleigh angular field-of-view, an important problem in fluorescence microscopy and astronomy. Our algorithm translates to a multi-spatial-mode transformation prior to a photon-detection array, with electro-optic feedback to adapt the mode sorter. We show that this receiver performs superior to quantum-noise-limited focal-plane direct imaging.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Signal Processing
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • Bayes methods
  • Bayesian Inference
  • Covariance matrices
  • Estimation
  • Estimation theory
  • Extraterrestrial measurements
  • Imaging
  • Information Theory
  • Quantum Information
  • Quantum mechanics
  • Super-Resolution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Signal Processing
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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