Quantum network is the key to enable distributed quantum information processing. As the single-link communication rate decays exponentially with the distance, to enable reliable end-to-end quantum communication, the number of nodes needs to grow with the network scale. For highly connected networks, we identify a threshold transition in the capacity as the density of network nodes increases: below a critical density the rate is almost zero, while above the threshold the rate increases linearly with the density. Surprisingly, above the threshold the typical communication capacity between two nodes is independent of the distance between them, due to multipath routing enabled by the quantum network. In contrast, for less connected networks such as scale-free networks, the end-to-end capacity saturates to constants as the number of nodes increases, and always decays with the distance. Our results are based on capacity evaluations, therefore the minimum density requirement for an appreciable capacity applies to any general protocols of quantum networks.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics