Introduction The use of non-invasive vascular and perfusion diagnostics are an important part of assessing lower extremity ulceration and amputation risk in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods for detecting impaired microvascular vasodilatory function in patients with diabetes may have the potential to identify sites at risk of ulceration prior to clinically identifiable signs. Spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) uses patterned near-infrared and visible light spectroscopy to determine tissue oxygen saturation and hemoglobin distribution within the superficial and deep dermis, showing distinct microcirculatory and oxygenation changes that occur prior to neuropathic and neuroischemic ulceration. Research designs and methods 35 patients with diabetes mellitus and a history of diabetic foot ulceration were recruited for monthly imaging with SFDI. Two patients who ulcerated during the year-long longitudinal study were selected for presentation of their clinical course alongside the dermal microcirculation biomarkers from SFDI. Results Patient 1 developed a neuropathic ulcer portended by a focal increase in tissue oxygen saturation and decrease in superficial papillary hemoglobin concentration 3 months prior. Patient 2 developed bilateral neuroischemic ulcers showing decreased tissue oxygen saturation and increased superficial papillary and deep dermal reticular hemoglobin concentrations. Conclusions Wounds of different etiology show unique dermal microcirculatory changes prior to gross ulceration. Before predictive models can be developed from SFDI, biomarker data must be correlated with the clinical course of patients who ulcerate while being followed longitudinally.
- biosensing techniques
- foot ulcer
- vascular surgical procedures
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism