Psychometric evaluation of a comprehensive medication management service experience instrument

Patrick J. Campbell, David R. Axon, Elizabeth J. Anderson, Molly J. Ekstrand, Amanda Brummel, Terri Warholak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: The Health-Systems Alliance for Integrated Medication Management (HAIMM) instrument was developed to estimate patient experience following pharmacist-delivered comprehensive medication management (CMM). Objectives: The objective of this paper was to assess the psychometric properties and factor structure of the HAIMM instrument. Methods: Data were collected from 5 members of the HAIMM collaborative. A one-factor confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) model was used to assess instrument dimensionality. A partial-credit item response theory model was used to assess the psychometric properties of the ten-item HAIMM patient experience instrument, consisting of tests for rating scale functioning, person and item fit, and content validity. Results: Among 516 respondents, there was a strong skew toward high satisfaction, including a strong ceiling effect. CFA results suggest a unidimensional construct. Item difficulty was spread across a low range and content redundancies were identified. The mean-square values for both infit and outfit all fell within the recommended range, whereas the z-standard fit was within the recommended range for most items. The 5-point Likert scale used in the HAIMM instrument did not distinguish between participants’ level of experience following the pharmacist-delivered CMM service. Conclusion: The psychometric analysis showed the HAIMM survey tool does not cover all of the content that should be assessed to fully evaluate CMM experiences. In its current form, the HAIMM instrument should not be used to make comparisons about the quality of CMM services provided, although it may be useful to monitor patient satisfaction for quality improvement purposes. Further research is required to develop an improved instrument that contains expanded content coverage, response options, and aspects of CMM to be useful by health care providers, health systems, and other decision makers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)218-223
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the American Pharmacists Association
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (nursing)
  • Pharmacy
  • Pharmacology


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