Proposed product label for electric lamps used in the plant sciences

Arend Jan Both, Bruce Bugbee, Chieri Kubota, Roberto G. Lopez, Cary Mitchell, Erik S. Runkle, Claude Wallace

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Electric lamps are widely used to supplement sunlight (supplemental lighting) and daylength extension (photoperiodic lighting) for the production of horticultural crops in greenhouses and controlled environments. Recent advances in light-emitting diode (LED) technology now provide the horticultural industry with multiple lighting options. However, growers are unable to compare technologies and LED options because of insufficient data on lamp performance metrics. Here, we propose a standardized product label that facilitates the comparison of lamps across manufacturers. This label includes the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) efficacy, PAR conversion efficiency, photon flux density output in key wave bands, as well as the phytochrome photostationary state (PSS), red/far red ratio, and graphs of the normalized photon flux density across the 300-900 nm wave band and a horizontal distribution of the light output.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)544-549
Number of pages6
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2017


  • Comparison
  • Efficacy
  • Efficiency
  • Light distribution
  • Lightemitting diode
  • Photon flux
  • Sole-source lighting
  • Supplemental lighting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Horticulture


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