Patients undergoing allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are at a very high risk of hepatitis B virus reactivation (HBVr). Lamivudine is commonly used as prophylaxis against HBVr in high-risk patients undergoing allo-HSCT. Unfortunately, its efficacy is diminishing due to the development of HBV mutant drug-resistant strains. With the availability of newer antiviral agents such as entecavir, telbivudine, adefovir, and tenofovir, it is important to assess their role in HBVr prophylaxis. A comprehensive search of 7 databases was performed to evaluate efficacy of antiviral prophylaxis against HBVr in allo-HSCT patients (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, and ClinicalTrials.gov (June 21, 2017)). We identified 10 studies, with 2067 patients undergoing allo-HSCT; these primarily evaluated the use of lamivudine and entecavir as prophylaxis against HBVr in patients undergoing allo-HSCT because there were little or no data about adefovir, telbivudine, or tenofovir as prophylaxis in this specific patient population. Thus, included studies were categorized into 2 main prophylaxis groups: lamivudine and entecavir. Results of our meta-analysis suggest that entecavir is very effective against HBVr, although further clinical trials are required to test efficacy of new antivirals and explore the emerging threat of drug resistance.
- Allogeneic stem cell transplantation
- Hepatitis B virus reactivation
ASJC Scopus subject areas