Prolonged remission of advanced bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma in a dog treated with autologous, tumour-derived chaperone-rich cell lysate (CRCL) vaccine

Laura M. Epple, Lynne T. Bemis, Ryan P. Cavanaugh, Anne Skope, Tehila Mayer-Sonnenfeld, Chad Frank, Christine S. Olver, Alex M. Lencioni, Nathaniel L. Dusto, Alona Tal, Michael Har-Noy, Kevin O. Lillehei, Emmanuel Katsanis, Michael W. Graner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Purpose: This paper presents the treatment of a 12-year-old female spayed Great Dane who presented with vestibular signs (ataxia, nystagmus, hind end collapse). Thoracic radiographs revealed a discrete pulmonary nodule in the right cranial lung lobe. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirate detected primary bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma, verified via computed tomography, with a second smaller nodule discovered in the right cranial lung lobe. Materials and methods: A lateral thoracotomy with right cranial lung lobectomy was performed. Histopathological analysis of the nodules and an excised lymph node identified grade III bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma with vascular infiltration and lymph node metastasis-a grim diagnosis with a reported median survival time of 6-27 days. A 10-g sample of the tumour was processed into a chaperone-rich cell lysate (CRCL) vaccine, which was administered weekly to the patient. Imiquimod-a Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist-was applied topically for the first 12 treatments to stimulate local Langerhans cells. A single injection of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) was administered for additional immune stimulation at week 30 of treatment. Results: The dog remained stable and in otherwise good health until diffuse relapse occurred 44 weeks after the initial treatment; following gastrointestinal bleeding, the dog was euthanised 50+ weeks post diagnosis. Conclusion: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of significantly prolonged survival following a diagnosis of grade III/stage III bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma in a canine patient. This case report suggests that CRCL vaccine combined with topical imiquimod is a safe, effective treatment for canine tumours.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)390-398
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Hyperthermia
Issue number5
StatePublished - Aug 2013


  • Cancer vaccine
  • Canine lung tumour
  • Chaperone-rich cell lysate
  • Heat shock proteins
  • Tumour immunity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cancer Research


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