Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) versus Other Programs: A Scoping Review of Health Outcomes

Daniel Arku, Mariana Felix, Terri Warholak, David R. Axon

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


The Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) provides comprehensive health and social services to community-dwelling older United States (US) adults. However, little is known about how PACE outcomes compare to similar caregiving programs. This scoping review searched nine databases to identify studies that compared economic, clinical, or humanistic outcomes of PACE to other caregiving programs in the US. Two reviewers independently screened and extracted data from relevant articles and resolved discrepancies through consensus. From the 724 articles identified, six studies were included. Example study outcomes included: limitations and needs, survival and mortality, healthcare utilization, and economic outcomes. In conclusion, there are few published comparisons of PACE outcomes versus other caregiving programs for older US adults, and identified studies indicate mixed results. Further studies are needed to compare PACE outcomes to other programs so that policymakers are well informed to manage and optimize health outcomes for the growing US older adult population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number31
JournalGeriatrics (Switzerland)
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2022


  • Community-based care
  • Geriatrics
  • Models of care
  • Outcomes
  • PACE

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Aging
  • Gerontology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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