According to the American Cancer Society, prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality for US men. A continuing research challenge is to improve diagnosis (especially the ability to detect uncommon aggressive cancers) and improve chemoprevention (through nutrition and lifestyle factors). The chapter highlights the growing importance of secondary prevention since prostate cancer is an indolent, slow growing tumor; preventing early tumor progression or eradicating early bone metastases may cure the disease. Considerations of the known etiology and biology of prostate cancer are presented as well as the strengths and limitations of current diagnostic and prognostic factors and specific interventions that have been tested. Lastly, promising avenues for secondary prevention strategies are presented based upon current knowledge.
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