Noroviruses (NoVs) and sapoviruses (SaVs) are emerging enteric pathogens that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Porcine genogroup II (GII) NoVs replicate in pigs, but their pathogenesis is undefined. The porcine SaV/GIII/Cowden/80/US strain causes diarrhea and intestinal lesions in pigs. Recently, genetically diverse porcine NoVs (genotypes 11, 18, and 19 within GII) and SaVs comprising at least two genogroups (GIII and GVI?/JJ681-like) and two unclassified strains (G?/QW19 and G?/LL26) were identified; however, their prevalence has not been reported. To investigate the prevalence of porcine NoVs and SaVs, 621 fecal samples were collected from swine of various ages from seven swine farms and one slaughterhouse in three states in the United States. Fecal samples were tested by reverse transcription-PCR and microwell hybridization assays with porcine NoV- and SaV-specific primers and probes, respectively. Porcine GII NoVs were detected exclusively from finisher pigs with an overall prevalence of 20%. Porcine GIII SaVs were detected in 62% of pigs, with the highest prevalence in postweaning pigs and lowest in nursing pigs. Porcine GVI?/JJ681-like SaVs and the G?/QW19-like SaVs were detected infrequently in pigs. The G?/LL26-like SaVs were detected mainly in younger pigs. Because some porcine NoVs and SaVs are genetically or antigenically related to human strains and recombinants within NoVs or SaVs occur for human and pig strains, the high prevalence and subclinical infection rate of these viruses in pigs raise questions of whether pigs may be reservoirs for human strains or for the emergence of new human and porcine recombinants.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Microbiology (medical)