Pressure retarded osmosis: Applications

A. Achilli, K. L. Hickenbottom

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

6 Scopus citations


This chapter presents typical applications and process configurations for both open-and closed-loop pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) systems, summarizing the current state of PRO technology at the pilot and industrial scale, and discussing future perspectives for salinity gradient energy from PRO. The first PRO configuration explored has been river-to-sea water and although this configuration has the potential to be a reliable source of base-load renewable energy, the low-energy density associated with this salinity gradient makes commercialization of PRO in this configuration unlikely. Additional PRO configurations include reverse osmosis (RO)-PRO and osmotic heat engines (OHE). The higher salinity gradient available for power production in RO-PRO systems and energy conversion in OHE is likely to make them a more promising component of an alternative energy portfolio.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationSustainable Energy from Salinity Gradients
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages21
ISBN (Electronic)9780081003237
ISBN (Print)9780081003121
StatePublished - Mar 8 2016


  • Artificial feed solutions
  • Brine
  • Closed-loop
  • Draw solutions
  • Natural feed solutions
  • Osmotic heat engine
  • Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO)
  • Reverse osmosis (RO)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)


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