Predictors of Time-in-Range (70-180 mg/dL) Achieved Using a Closed-Loop Control System

Melissa J. Schoelwer, Lauren G. Kanapka, R. Paul Wadwa, Marc D. Breton, Katrina J. Ruedy, Laya Ekhlaspour, Gregory P. Forlenza, Erin C. Cobry, Laurel H. Messer, Eda Cengiz, Emily Jost, Lori Carria, Emma Emory, Liana J. Hsu, Stuart A. Weinzimer, Bruce A. Buckingham, Rayhan A. Lal, Mary Clancy Oliveri, Craig C. Kollman, Betsy B. DokkenDaniel R. Cherñavvsky, Roy W. Beck, Mark D. Deboer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Background: Studies of closed-loop control (CLC) in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) consistently demonstrate improvements in glycemic control as measured by increased time-in-range (TIR) 70-180 mg/dL. However, clinical predictors of TIR in users of CLC systems are needed. Materials and Methods: We analyzed data from 100 children aged 6-13 years with T1D using the Tandem Control-IQ CLC system during a randomized trial or subsequent extension phase. Continuous glucose monitor data were collected at baseline and during 12-16 weeks of CLC use. Participants were stratified into quartiles of TIR on CLC to compare clinical characteristics. Results: TIR for those in the first, second, third, and fourth quartiles was 54%, 65%, 71%, and 78%, respectively. Lower baseline TIR was associated with lower TIR on CLC (r = 0.69, P < 0.001). However, lower baseline TIR was also associated with greater improvement in TIR on CLC (r = -0.81, P < 0.001). During CLC, participants in the highest versus lowest TIR-quartile administered more user-initiated boluses daily (8.5 ± 2.8 vs. 5.8 ± 2.6, P < 0.001) and received fewer automated boluses (3.5 ± 1.0 vs. 6.0 ± 1.6, P < 0.001). Participants in the lowest (vs. the highest) TIR-quartile received more insulin per body weight (1.13 ± 0.27 vs. 0.87 ± 0.20 U/kg/d, P = 0.008). However, in a multivariate model adjusting for baseline TIR, user-initiated boluses and insulin-per-body-weight were no longer significant. Conclusions: Higher baseline TIR is the strongest predictor of TIR on CLC in children with T1D. However, lower baseline TIR is associated with the greatest improvement in TIR. As with open-loop systems, user engagement is important for optimal glycemic control.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)475-481
Number of pages7
JournalDiabetes Technology and Therapeutics
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2021


  • Closed-loop systems
  • Insulin pump
  • Time-in-range
  • Type 1 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology
  • Medical Laboratory Technology


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