Predicting pharmacy naloxone stocking and dispensing following a statewide standing order, Indiana 2016

B. E. Meyerson, J. D. Agley, A. Davis, W. Jayawardene, A. Hoss, D. J. Shannon, P. T. Ryder, K. Ritchie, R. Gassman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations


Background: While naloxone, the overdose reversal medication, has been available for decades, factors associated with its availability through pharmacies remain unclear. Studies suggest that policy and pharmacist beliefs may impact availability. Indiana passed a standing order law for naloxone in 2015 to increase access to naloxone. Objective: To identify factors associated with community pharmacy naloxone stocking and dispensing following the enactment of a statewide naloxone standing order. Methods: A 2016 cross-sectional census of Indiana community pharmacists was conducted following a naloxone standing order. Community, pharmacy, and pharmacist characteristics, and pharmacist attitudes about naloxone dispensing, access, and perceptions of the standing order were measured. Modified Poisson and binary logistic regression models attempted to predict naloxone stocking and dispensing, respectively. Results: Over half (58.1%) of pharmacies stocked naloxone, yet 23.6% of pharmacists dispensed it. Most (72.5%) pharmacists believed the standing order would increase naloxone stocking, and 66.5% believed it would increase dispensing. Chain pharmacies were 3.2 times as likely to stock naloxone. Naloxone stocking was 1.6 times as likely in pharmacies with more than one full-time pharmacist. Pharmacies where pharmacists received naloxone continuing education in the past two years were 1.3 times as likely to stock naloxone. The attempted dispensing model yielded no improvement over the constant-only model. Conclusions: Pharmacies with larger capacity took advantage of the naloxone standing order. Predictors of pharmacist naloxone dispensing should continue to be explored to maximize naloxone access.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)187-192
Number of pages6
JournalDrug and Alcohol Dependence
StatePublished - Jul 1 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Naloxone access
  • Opioid overdose reversal
  • Pharmacy practice
  • Public health law

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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