Predation risk affects reproductive physiology and demography of elk

Scott Creel, David Christianson, Stewart Liley, John A. Winnie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

392 Scopus citations

Abstract

Yellowstone elk have fewer offspring in years in which a predator, the wolf, is more plentiful, demonstrating an indirect cost of antipredator responses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)960
Number of pages1
JournalScience
Volume315
Issue number5814
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 16 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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