Population structure of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), an invasive species from the Americas, 60 years after invading China

Rui Rui Gao, Wen Ping Zhang, Huai Tong Wu, Rui Ming Zhang, Hong Xu Zhou, Hui Peng Pan, You Jun Zhang, Judith K. Brown, Dong Chu

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11 Scopus citations


Though the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was introduced into China more than 60 years ago, the genetic diversity and structure of this exotic insect pest and virus vector have not been studied. To investigate the population genetic characteristics of this invasive species and to identify potential invasion routes, the genetic diversity and population structure of 17 collections of T. vaporariorum from nine provinces in China were analyzed using seven microsatellite loci. The results of the analyses indicated that the genetic diversity for the populations examined from the four provinces: Jilin, Ningxia, Guizhou and Qinghai, was lower than the genetic diversity of populations from the five provinces: Yunnan, Shandong, Shanxi, Liaoning, and Gansu. The T. vaporariorum populations analyzed in this study grouped as two distinct genetic clusters based on the analysis using STRUCTURE, whereas, 8 clusters were identified based on the BAPS analysis. Of the 136 genetic distance (Fst) values, 128 (94%) were associated with a significant exact test. However, there was no significant relationship between Fst and geographical distance. These results demonstrate that populations of T. vaporariorum in China exhibit significant genetic differentiation, indicating the likelihood that multiple introductions of T. vaporarioruminto China have occurred. Also, the populations collected from the provinces of Jilin, Ningxia, Guizhou and Qinghai appear to represent secondary introductions originating from other Chinese provinces.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13514-13528
Number of pages15
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 4 2014


  • Biological invasion
  • Exotic introduction
  • Genetic differentiation
  • Genetic structure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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