Polar coordinate laser writing systems: Error analysis of fabricated DOEs

Alexander Poleshchuk, Victor Korolkov, Vadim Cherkashin, Stephan Reichelt, Jim Burge

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Diffractive optics is a field where the progress is defined by fabrication technology. Diffractive optical elements (DOEs) are generally planar structures, typically fabricated using X-Y image generators designed for semiconductor industry. However there are some kinds of DOEs for which the polar scanning geometry, where the optic rotates under a writing beam, is more preferable. In some cases polar coordinate machines provide the only practical method of fabricating DOEs with the required accuracy. It is necessary to take into account the DOE specification when choosing the fabrication method. The present paper considers peculiarities of polar coordinate laser systems for large size and high precision DOEs fabrication. The specific error sources for these systems are described and compared with those of X-Y systems. An optimal writing strategy is discussed. The wavefront aberrations of rotationally symmetric DOEs caused by fabrication errors were measured interferometrically. Different types of aberrations were identified and can be referred to certain writing errors. Interferometric measurements of the wavefront errors for binary zone plates with a 64 mm diameter and 0.45 numerical aperture have shown that the wavefront root-mean-square error does not exceed 0.009λ.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)161-172
Number of pages12
JournalProceedings of SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - 2001


  • CGH
  • Computer generated holograms
  • DOE
  • Diffractive optical elements
  • Fabrication errors
  • Fabrication tolerances
  • Polar coordinate writer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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