Considerable attention has focused on identifying mediators of neovascularization at sites of growth and abnormal tissue development. By contrast, mediators of angiogenesis at sites of injury and wound repair are not well defined but factors generated during blood coagulation (haemostasis) are attractive candidates. In addition to proteins generated, activated and released during the activation of clotting cascades, platelet-derived lipid mediators are now known to play a key role in many aspects of the angiogenic response. The first indication of lipid mediator involvement in angiogenesis was the discovery that lysophosphatidate (LPA), phosphatidic acid (PA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (SPP) are high affinity agonists for G-protein coupled EDG (endothelial differentiation gene) receptors. The prototype for this family, EDG-1, was cloned from genes expressed when endothelial cells were activated to assume an angiogenic phenotype in vitro. The subsequent finding that SPP is a high affinity ligand for EDG-1 led Spiegel, Hla and associates (Lee et al., Science 1998;279:1552-1555) to hypothesize that platelet-released phospholipids play an important role in angiogenesis. These investigators and others demonstrated that SPP, LPA and phosphatidate (PA) induce many important endothelial cell responses associated with angiogenesis, including liberation of endothelial cells from established monolayers, chemotactic migration, proliferation, adherens junction assembly and morphogenesis into capillary-like structures. Although these studies indicated the potential involvement of platelet-derived phospholipids in angiogenesis, their physiological importance was not established. However, recent work demonstrates that >80% of the potent endothelial cell chemoattractive activity generated in human serum during clotting - an activity necessary for optimal angiogenesis - results from platelet-derived SPP. Other factors released from platelets during clotting, including LPA and PA, exert profound effects on endothelial cells that contribute unique aspects to the angiogenic response. These combined studies establish that SPP and other platelet-derived lipid mediators provide a novel link between haemostasis and angiogenesis.
- Endothelial receptors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)