Physiology and kinetics of manganese‐reducing bacillus polymyxa strain d1 isolated from manganiferous silver ore

Patricia Anne Rusin, Leticia Quintana, Norval Arthur Sinclair, Robert Glenn Arnold, Karen Lee Oden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Manganese‐reducing bacteria were isolated from a manganiferous silver ore mining site using enrichment procedures. The most rapid Mn(IV) reducer was identified as Bacillus polymyxa and was designated as strain D1. Isolate D1 has no growth‐factor requirements and is mesophilic and neutrophilic. D1 respires glucose aerobically, under which conditions cyanide is bactericidal. Nonfermentable substrates such as lactate, acetate, citrate, and succinate cannot serve as sole carbon sources. D1 ferments glucose anaerobically, producing acetic acid, ethanol, and butanediol as major metabolic end products. Both anaerobic conditions and direct physical contact with pyrolusite (MnO 2) particles were necessary for manganese reduction. Strain D1 is unique in that manganese serves as an ancillary electron acceptor during anaerobic fermentation. Kinetic experiments showed that D1 reduced manganese three to five times as rapidly as the widely studied Mn(IV)/Fe(III)‐reducing microorganisms Shewanella putrefaciens MR‐1 and Shewanella putrefa‐ciens sp. 200. Strain D1 is capable of liberating silver via the reductive dissolution of refractory manganiferous ores.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13-25
Number of pages13
JournalGeomicrobiology Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 1991
Externally publishedYes


  • Bacillus
  • Bioextraction
  • Bioleaching
  • Dissimilative Mn(IV) reduction
  • Manganese
  • Refractory ore
  • Silver

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Environmental Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)


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