Physics for clinicians: Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and double inversion recovery (DIR) Imaging

Manojkumar Saranathan, Pauline W. Worters, Dan W. Rettmann, Blair Winegar, Jennifer Becker

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations

Abstract

A pedagogical review of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and double inversion recovery (DIR) imaging is conducted in this article. The basics of the two pulse sequences are first described, including the details of the inversion preparation and imaging sequences with accompanying mathematical formulae for choosing the inversion time in a variety of scenarios for use on clinical MRI scanners. Magnetization preparation (or T2prep), a strategy for improving image signal-to-noise ratio and contrast and reducing T1 weighting at high field strengths, is also described. Lastly, image artifacts commonly associated with FLAIR and DIR are described with clinical examples, to help avoid misdiagnosis. Level of Evidence: 5. Technical Efficacy: Stage 2. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1590–1600.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1590-1600
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Volume46
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2017

Keywords

  • DIR
  • FLAIR
  • inversion recovery
  • physics for clinicians

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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