The Bemisia tabaci cryptic species contains 39 known mitotypes of which the B and Q are best recognized for having established outside their extant endemic range. In the 1980s, previously uncharacterized haplotype(s) of the B mitotype rapidly established in tropical and subtropical locales distant from their presumed center of origin, leading to displacement of several native mitotypes and extreme damage to crops and other vegetation particularly in irrigated agroecosystems. To trace the natural and evolutionary history of the invasive B haplotypes, a phylo-biogeographic study was undertaken. Patterns of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and signatures potentially indicative of geographic isolation were investigated using a globally representative mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (mtCOI) sequence database. Eight haplotype groups within the North Africa-Middle East (NAFME) region were differentiated, NAFME 1–8. The NAFME 1–3 haplotypes were members of the same population that is associated with warm desert climate niches of the Arabian Peninsula and east coastal Africa-Ethiopia. The NAFME 4 and 5 haplotypes are endemic to warm and cold semi-arid niches delimited by the Irano-Turanian floristic region, itself harboring extensive biodiversity. Haplotypes 6 and 7 co-occurred in the Middle East along eastern Mediterranean Sea landmasses, while NAFME 8 was found to be endemic to Cyprus, Turkey, and desert micro-niches throughout Egypt and Israel. Contrary to claims that collectively, the B mitotype is invasive, NAFME 6 and 8 are the only haplotypes to have established in.
- Climate niche
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)