Phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

Mial E. Warren, Kevin L. Lear, Paul L. Gourley, G. R. Hadley, J. A. Lott, Gregory A. Vawter, S. A. Chalmers, Thomas M. Brennan, B. E. Hammons, John C. Zolper

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2 Scopus citations


Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are of increasing interest to the photonics community because of their surface-emitting structure, simple fabrication and packaging, wafer-level testability, and potential for low cost manufacture. Scaling VCSELs to higher power outputs requires increasing the device area, which leads to transverse mode control difficulties if devices become larger than about 5 microns. One approach to increasing the device size while maintaining a well controlled transverse mode profile is formation of coupled or phase-locked 2D arrays of VCSELs that are individually single-transverse mode. Such arrays have unique optical properties, not all of which are desirable. This paper covers some of the basic principles of these devices and reviews recent work on device designs, fabrication and operation. A technique for improving the far- field properties of the arrays is demonstrated and performance limitations are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
EditorsNasser Peygambarian, Henry Everitt, Robert C. Eckardt, Dennis D. Lowenthal
PublisherPubl by Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers
Number of pages12
ISBN (Print)0819414409
StatePublished - 1994
Externally publishedYes
EventNonlinear Optics for High-Speed Electronics and Optical Frequency Conversion - Los Angeles, CA, USA
Duration: Jan 24 1994Jan 26 1994

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X


OtherNonlinear Optics for High-Speed Electronics and Optical Frequency Conversion
CityLos Angeles, CA, USA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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