Pharmacodynamics of intravenous ciprofloxacin in seriously ill patients

A. Forrest, D. E. Nix, C. H. Ballow, T. F. Goss, M. C. Birmingham, J. J. Schentag

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1058 Scopus citations


Seventy-four acutely ill patients were treated with intravenous ciprofloxacin at dosages ranging between 200 mg every 12 h and 400 mg every 8 h. A population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis relating drug exposure (and other factors) to infectious outcome was performed. Plasma samples were obtained and assayed for ciprofloxacin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples from patients were frequently cultured so that the day of bacterial eradication could be determined. The pharmacokinetic data were fitted by iterative two-stage analysis, assuming a linear two- compartment model. Logistic regression was used to model ciprofloxacin exposure (and other potential covariates) versus the probabilities of achieving clinical and microbiologic cures. The same variables were also modelled versus the time to bacterial eradication by proportional hazards regression. The independent variables considered were dose, site of infection, infecting organism and the MIC for it, percent time above the MIC, peak, peak/MIC ratio, trough, trough/MIC ratio, 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), AUC/MIC ratio (AUIC), presence of other active antibacterial agents, and patient characteristics. The most important predictor for all three measures of ciprofloxacin pharmacodynamics was the AUIC. A 24-h AUIC of 125 SIT-1 · h (inverse serum inhibitory titer integrated over time) was found to be a significant breakpoint for probabilities of both clinical and microbiologic cures. At an AUIC below 125 (19 patients), the percent probabilities of clinical and microbiologic cures were 42 and 26%, respectively. At an AUIC above 125 (45 patients), the probabilities were 80% (P < 0.005) and 82% (P < 0.001), respectively. There were two significant breakpoints in the time-to-bacterial-eradication data. At an AUIC below 125 (21 patients), the median time to eradication exceeded 32 days; at an AUIC of 125 to 250 (15 patients), time to eradication was 6.6 days; and at AUIC above 250 (28 patients), the median time to eradication was 1.9 days (groups differed; P < 0.005). These findings, when combined with pharmacokinetic data reported in the companion article, provide the rationale and tools needed for targeting the dosage of intravenous ciprofloxacin to individual patients' pharmacokinetics and their bacterial pathogens' susceptibilities. An a priori dosing algorithm (based on MIC, patient creatinine clearance and weight, and the clinician-specified AUIC target) was developed. This approach was shown, retrospectively, to be more precise than current guidelines, and it can be used to achieve more rapid bacteriologic and clinical responses to ciprofloxacin, as a consequence of targeting the AUIC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1073-1081
Number of pages9
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1993

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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