Perspectives on intrinsic toughening strategies and passivation of perovskite films with organic additives

Matthew Gutwald, Nicholas Rolston, Adam D. Printz, Oliver Zhao, Hannah Elmaraghi, Yichuan Ding, Jinbao Zhang, Reinhold H. Dauskardt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


We report on the inclusion of 5-aminovaleric acid (5-AVA)—a bulky, long-chained organic molecule—as an additive to enhance the mechanical integrity of hybrid perovskite films. We studied a range of organic cation additives and found that 5-AVA was the most effective at improving cohesion energy, a key metric of mechanical reliability. MAPbI3 films reinforced with 5-AVA added in 5% concentration increased cohesion energy 12-fold from 0.53 J/m2 to 6.04 J/m2, an effect which is attributed to increased plasticity and crack deflection around grain boundaries of the additive-containing perovskite. The addition of 5-AVA also improves Voc in perovskite solar cells and carrier lifetimes with a minimal decrease in PCE, attributed to passivation reducing defect and trap densities. A Tauc plot analysis of the bandgap shows that 5-AVA increases the band gap of the perovskite, correlating with reduced film stress compared to MAPbI3. As a result, the usage of 5-AVA improves the intrinsic thermomechanical reliability, but this improvement comes at the penalty of slightly reduced device efficiency due to reduced charge extraction from the presence of the bulky, insulating organic additive.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number110433
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • 2D perovskite
  • 5-Aminovaleric acid
  • Microstructure
  • Perovskite solar cells
  • Reliability
  • Stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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