Persistent postoperative opioid use after total hip or knee arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Hui Ping Tay, Xinyi Wang, Sujita W. Narayan, Jonathan Penm, Asad E. Patanwala

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: To identify the proportion of patients with continued opioid use after total hip or knee arthroplasty. Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis searched Embase, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts for articles published from January 1, 2009, to May 26, 2021. The search terms (opioid, postoperative, hospital discharge, total hip or knee arthroplasty, and treatment duration) were based on 5 key concepts. We included studies of adults who underwent total hip or knee arthroplasty, with at least 3 months postoperative follow-up. Results: There were 30 studies included. Of these, 17 reported on outcomes of total hip arthroplasty and 19 reported on outcomes of total knee arthroplasty, with some reporting on outcomes of both procedures. In patients having total hip arthroplasty, rates of postoperative opioid use at various time points were as follows: at 3 months, 20% (95% CI, 13%-26%); at 6 months, 17% (95% CI, 12%-21%); at 9 months, 19% (95% CI, 13%-24%); and at 12 months, 16% (95% CI, 15%-16%). In patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty, rates of postoperative opioid use were as follows: at 3 months, 26% (95% CI, 19%-33%); at 6 months, 20% (95% CI, 17%-24%); at 9 months, 23% (95% CI, 17%-28%); and at 12 months, 21% (95% CI, 12%-29%). Opioid naïve patients were less likely to have continued postoperative opioid use than those who were opioid tolerant preoperatively. Conclusion: Over 1 in 5 patients continued opioid use for longer than 3 months after total hip or knee arthroplasty. Clinicians should be aware of this trajectory of opioid consumption after surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)147-164
Number of pages18
JournalAmerican Journal of Health-System Pharmacy
Volume79
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2022

Keywords

  • hip replacement arthroplasty
  • knee replacement arthroplasty
  • opioid analgesics
  • pain management
  • postoperative pain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacy
  • Pharmacology
  • Health Policy

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