Perioperative outcomes of open vs. Robotic radical cystectomy: A nationwide comparative analysis (2008–2014)

Alfredo Harb De la Rosa, Jenny Garcia-Castaneda, Chiu Hsieh Hsu, Jiping Zeng, Ken Batai, Benjamin R. Lee, Juan Chipollini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction Radical cystectomy (RC) is a complex procedure with high perioperative morbidity. In an effort to reduce complications, robotic-assisted RC (RARC) has been adopted as a minimally invasive alternative to the open approach (ORC). Herein, we examine post-operative outcomes of the two surgical approaches in the United States (US) using a large all-payer database. Material and methods Using International Classification of Disease, ninth revision (ICD-9) codes, patient who underwent RC were captured from National Inpatient Sample (2008–2014). ICD-9 diagnosis and procedure codes were used to identify post-operative complications. Trends in the utilization of RARC were analyzed. Logistic and log-linear regression accounting for hospital sample weights and sampling years were performed to analyze outcomes after adjustment of pertinent covariates. Results Of 11,189 patients, 14% underwent RARC. RARC was performed in more teaching hospitals, male patients, those with private insurance, and lower comorbidity score. Performance of RARC steadily increased over the study period (p <0.01). In the last year of the study, 22.8% of cases performed robotically. The weighted average length-of-stay were 10.4 and 8.79 days for ORC and RARC, respectively (p <0.01). In multivariable analyses, RARC was associated with decreased blood transfusion, parenteral nutrition, pneumonia, surgical-site infection, wound and respiratory complications (all, p <0.05). No significant differences were found for in-hospital mortality, cardiac, genitourinary, and vascular complications. Conclusions Performance of RARC has significantly increased in recent years. RARC appears safe and feasible for select patients. Earlier discharge and lower complications were noted for those undergoing RARC across different hospital systems nationwide.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-5
Number of pages5
JournalCentral European Journal of Urology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2020


  • Bladder cancer
  • National inpatient sample
  • Robotic cystectomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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