Perceived discrimination in primary care: Does Payer mix matter?

Jessica H. Williams, Gabriel S. Tajeu, Irena Stepanikova, Lucia D. Juarez, April A. Agne, Jeff Stone, Andrea L. Cherrington

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Introduction: Previous literature has explored patient perceptions of discrimination by race and insurance status, but little is known about whether the payer mix of the primary care clinic (i.e., that is majority public insurance vs. majority private insurance clinics) influences patient perceptions of race- or insurance-based discrimination. Methods: Between 2015-2017, we assessed patient satisfaction and perceived race- and insurance-based discrimination using a brief, anonymous post-clinic visit survey. Results: Participants included 3,721 patients from seven primary care clinics—three public clinics and four private clinics. Results from unadjusted logistic regression models suggest higher overall reports of race- and insurance-based discrimination in public clinics compared with private clinics. In mulvariate analyses, increasing age, Black race, lower education and Medicaid insurance were associated with higher odds of reporting race- and insurance-based discrimination in both public and private settings. Conclusion: Reports of race and insurance discrimination are higher in public clinics than private clinics. Sociodemographic variables, such as age, Black race, education level, and type of insurance also influence reports of race- and insurance-based discrimination in primary care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)81-89
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the National Medical Association
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Insurance
  • Perceived discrimination
  • Primary care
  • Race

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Perceived discrimination in primary care: Does Payer mix matter?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this