PDGFR-β Promoter Forms a Vacancy G-Quadruplex that Can Be Filled in by dGMP: Solution Structure and Molecular Recognition of Guanine Metabolites and Drugs

Kai Bo Wang, Jonathan Dickerhoff, Guanhui Wu, Danzhou Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations

Abstract

Aberrant expression of PDGFR-β is associated with a number of diseases. The G-quadruplexes (G4s) formed in PDGFR-β gene promoter are transcriptional modulators and amenable to small molecule targeting. The major G4 formed in the PDGFR-β gene promoter was previously shown to have a broken G-strand. Herein, we report that the PDGFR-β gene promoter sequence forms a vacancy G-quadruplex (vG4) which can be filled in and stabilized by physiologically relevant guanine metabolites, such as dGMP, GMP, and cGMP, as well as guanine-derivative drugs. We determined the NMR structure of the dGMP-fill-in PDGFR-β vG4 in K+ solution. This is the first structure of a guanine-metabolite-fill-in vG4 based on a human gene promoter sequence. Our structure and systematic analysis elucidate the contributions of Hoogsten hydrogen bonds, sugar, and phosphate moieties to the specific G-vacancy fill-in. Intriguingly, an equilibrium of 3′- and 5′-end vG4s is present in the PDGFR-β promoter sequence, and dGMP favors the 5′-end fill-in. Guanine metabolites and drugs were tested and showed a conserved selectivity for the 5′-vacancy, except for cGMP. cGMP binds both the 3′- and 5′-end vG4s and forms two fill-in G4s with similar population. Significantly, guanine metabolites are involved in many physiological and pathological processes in human cells; thus, our results provide a structural basis to understand their potential regulatory functions by interaction with promoter vG4s. Moreover, the NMR structure can guide rational design of ligands that target the PDGFR-β vG4.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5204-5211
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume142
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 18 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Catalysis
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry

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