PCB-integrated metallic thermal micro-actuators

Eniko T. Enikov, Kalin Lazarov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


The development of thermal micro-actuators on printed circuit boards is described. The fabricated metal actuators are shown to have similar displacement characteristics when compared with silicon-based devices described in the literature. The actuators are benchmarked with respect to power consumption, stroke, and response time. It is further demonstrated that simple analytical estimates for the response time are in good agreement with the experimental measurements and finite element analysis. The thermal cooling transient times are captured using a two-step constant-current excitation method. The fabrication process and potential application areas of the developed device are also provided.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)76-82
Number of pages7
JournalSensors and Actuators, A: Physical
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jun 15 2003


  • MEMS
  • Micro-relay
  • Thermal micro-actuator
  • Thermal response time

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Instrumentation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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