Pattern quarks and leptons

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Disclinations, concave and convex, are the canonical point defects of two-dimensional planar patterns in systems with translational and rotational symmetries. From these, all other point defects (vortices, dislocations, targets, saddles and handles) can be built. Moreover, handles, coupled concave-convex disclination pairs arise as instabilities, symmetry breaking events. The purpose of this article is to show that embedded in three or more dimensions, concave and convex disclination strings, two-dimensional disclinations with loop backbones, have interesting and suggestive invariant indices which are integer multiples of.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)213-223
Number of pages11
JournalApplicable Analysis
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2012


  • disclinations
  • leptons
  • quarks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analysis
  • Applied Mathematics


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