Parity and later life risk for coronary heart disease among slum-dwelling women in Mysore, India

Karl Krupp, Benjamin Pope, Arun Srinivas, Kavitha Ravi, Anisa Khan, Vijaya Srinivas, Purnima Madhivanan, Elena Bastida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: To examine the role of parity in coronary heart disease (CHD) among middle-aged Indian women living in government-designated slums in Mysore, India. Methods: Between October 2017 and May 2018, a cross-sectional study was carried out among women, 40–64 years of age, residing in government-designated slums in Mysore, India. In addition to socio-demographics, data were collected on CVD risk factors including use of tobacco and alcohol, diet, physical activity, sleep, quality of life, and personal and family history of chronic disease. Patients underwent a medical examination and a venous blood sample was taken for fasting lipid measurement. Resting electrocardiography was carried out by a trained medical technician. Multivariable logistic regression with associated 95% confidence intervals was used to examine the relationship between parity and coronary heart disease. Results: The prevalence of CHD in this sample of middle-aged women was 6.4%. Nulliparous women were at heightened risk for CHD compared to parous women with up to five live births. In the adjusted model, women who had 1-2 and 3–5 live births had 0.24 times lower odds (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.05–1.29) and 0.38 times lower odds (95%CI: 0.178–0.87) of CHD, respectively, as compared to nulliparous women. Conclusion: Among a fairly homogenous population of slum-dwelling women reporting almost universal breastfeeding for three or more months following birth, parity up to five births appeared protective against CHD. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether near universal breastfeeding rates in this population mediated the relationship of parity and CHD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)622-628
Number of pages7
JournalIndian Heart Journal
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2021


  • Breastfeeding
  • Coronary heart disease
  • India
  • Parity
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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