Paper-based in vitro tissue chip for delivering programmed mechanical stimuli of local compression and shear flow

Kattika Kaarj, Marianne Madias, Patarajarin Akarapipad, Soohee Cho, Jeong Yeol Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Mechanical stimuli play important roles on the growth, development, and behavior of tissue. A simple and novel paper-based in vitro tissue chip was developed that can deliver two types of mechanical stimuli-local compression and shear flow-in a programmed manner. Rat vascular endothelial cells (RVECs) were patterned on collagen-coated nitrocellulose paper to create a tissue chip. Localized compression and shear flow were introduced by simply tapping and bending the paper chip in a programmed manner, utilizing an inexpensive servo motor controlled by an Arduino microcontroller and powered by batteries. All electrical compartments and a paper-based tissue chip were enclosed in a single 3D-printed enclosure, allowing the whole device to be independently placed within an incubator. This simple device effectively simulated in vivo conditions and induced successful RVEC migration in as early as 5 h. The developed device provides an inexpensive and flexible alternative for delivering mechanical stimuli to other in vitro tissue models. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext].

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number20
JournalJournal of Biological Engineering
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 28 2020


  • Automated flow control
  • Cell migration
  • Microcontroller
  • Paper-based cell culture
  • Vascular endothelial cell

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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