Packet recycling and delayed ACK for improving the performance of TCP over MANETs

Raed T. Al-Zubi, Marwan Krunz, Ghazi Al-Sukkar, Mohammed Hawa, Khalid A. Darabkh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Most of the schemes that were proposed to improve the performance of transmission control protocol (TCP) over mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are based on a feedback from the network, which can be expensive (require extra bandwidth) and unreliable. Moreover, most of these schemes consider only one cause of packet loss. They also resume operation based on the same stand-by parameters that might vary in the new route. Therefore, we propose two techniques for improving the performance of TCP overMANETs. The first one, called TCP with packet recycling (TCP-PR), allows the nodes to recycle the packets instead of dropping them after reaching the retransmission limit at the MAC layer. In the second technique, which is called TCP with adaptive delay window (TCP-ADW), the receiver delays sending TCP ACK for a certain time that is dynamically changed according to the congestion window and the trip time of the received packet. TCP-PR and TCP-ADW are simple, easy to implement, do not require network feedback, compatible with the standard TCP, and do not require distinguishing between the causes of packet loss. Our thorough simulations show that the integration of our two techniques improves the performance of TCP over MANETs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)943-963
Number of pages21
JournalWireless Personal Communications
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2014


  • Delayed ACK
  • Packet recycling
  • TCP performance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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