Ovarian cancer is the second leading cause of gynecologic cancer death with 225,500 new diagnoses and 140,200 deaths each year worldwide (Jemal et al., CA Cancer J Clin 61(2):69–90, 2011). In the developed world, ovarian cancer is the leading cause of gynecologic cancer death. In the USA, there are 22,280 new ovarian cancer diagnoses and 15,500 deaths from the disease each year (Siegel et al., CA Cancer J Clin 62(1):10–29, 2012). Epithelial ovarian cancers comprise the most common type of ovarian cancers and account for the vast majority of deaths from this disease. The incidence rate of ovarian cancer varies internationally (Fig. 18.1), with higher rates in Europe and North America and lower rates in Africa and the Middle East. The potential contributing factors related to ovarian cancer risk, early detection and screening, as well as the etiology of the disease are described in more detail in this chapter.
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