Outside Africs: Middle Pleuistocene Lycaon from Hayonim cave, Israel

M. C. Stiner, F. C. Howell, B. Martínez-Navarro, E. Tchernov, O. Bar-Yosef

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


In 1997 a nearly complete adult hemi-mandible of the genus Lycaon (Canidae) was found in the early Middle Paleolithic layer of Hayonim Cave, Israel. Dating to oxygen isotope (18116O) stage 6, or perhaps late stage 7, of the later middle Pleistocene, this is the only unequivocal example of the genus recorded outside of the African continent for any period. The mandible includes three permanent molars, most of the horizontal ramus, and the condyle. It was not in anatomical connection with the cranium at the time of discovery, or with any other skeletal parts. The mandible's morphology is primitive, retaining ancestral features in the dentition and a very robust horizontal ramus. This fossil Lycaon occurs in general stratigraphic association with early Middle Paleolithic artifacts and fauna, but it bears no tool marks or burning damage. This unique find raises new questions about the origin, evolution, and dispersal of the genus Lycaon.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)293-302
Number of pages10
JournalBollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2001


  • Canidae
  • Hayonim cave
  • Lycaon
  • Middle pleistocene
  • Western Asia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Palaeontology


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