Optimization of an Antibody Microarray Printing Process Using a Designed Experiment

Alexander J. Summers, Jasmine P. Devadhasan, Jian Gu, Douglas C. Montgomery, Brittany Fischer, Marcellene A. Gates-Hollingsworth, Kathryn J. Pflughoeft, Tuan Vo-Dinh, David P. Aucoin, Frederic Zenhausern

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Antibody microarrays have proven useful in immunoassay-based point-of-care diagnostics for infectious diseases. Noncontact piezoelectric inkjet printing has advantages to print antibody microarrays on nitrocellulose substrates for this application due to its compatibility with sensitive solutions and substrates, simple droplet control, and potential for high-capacity printing. However, there remain real-world challenges in printing such microarrays, which motivated this study. The effects of three concentrations of capture antibody (cAb) reagents and nozzle hydrostatic pressures were chosen to investigate three responses: the number of printed membrane disks, dispensing performance, and microarray quality. Printing conditions were found to be most ideal with 5 mg/mL cAb and a nozzle hydrostatic pressure near zero, which produced 130 membrane disks in a single print versus the 10 membrane disks per print before optimization. These results serve to inform efficient printing of antibody microarrays on nitrocellulose membranes for rapid immunoassay-based detection of infectious diseases and beyond.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)32262-32271
Number of pages10
JournalACS Omega
Issue number36
StatePublished - Sep 13 2022
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering


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