Occurrence of enteric viruses and faecal indicators in submarine groundwater discharges in the coastal environment of the Mexican Caribbean

Carlos Eduardo Muñoz-Cortés, Gabriela Rosiles-González, Oscar A. Moreno Valenzuela, Rosa María Leal-Bautista, Walter Q. Betancourt, Charles P. Gerba, Cristobal Chaidez-Quiroz, Cecilia Hernández-Zepeda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

The occurrence of faecal microorganisms such as total coliforms (TCs), Escherichia coli (E. coli), coliphages (somatic and F+ specific) and the genomes of faecal viruses: human adenovirus (HAdV), norovirus (NoV) genogroup I (GI) and II (GII), enterovirus (EV), aichi virus (AiV) and Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), was explored in submarine groundwater discharges (SGDs) in the Mexican Caribbean. Ultra-filtrated water samples were subjected to nucleic acid extraction and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results showed the presence of TC bacteria at all sites, whereas the detection of E. coli occurred only during the dry season. Coliphages occurred during the rainy and dry seasons, with concentrations ranging from 10 to 2560 plaque forming units (PFU/100 ml). HAdV and AiV were detected in 50% and 41% of the samples, at concentrations ranging from 102 to 104 genome copies per litre (GC/L) and from 102 to 106 GC/L, respectively. NoV GI and II were detected in 25% and 16% of the samples, at concentrations of 101 GC/L and 102–103 GC/L, respectively. PMMoV was detected in 50% of the samples at concentrations ranging from 101 to 103 GC/L. The EV genomes were not detected. These findings demonstrate that faecal microorganisms can be transported through SGDs in the Mexican Caribbean, potentially contributing to human health risks for recreation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)34-43
Number of pages10
JournalWater and Environment Journal
Volume37
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2023

Keywords

  • Mexican Caribbean
  • coliform bacteria
  • coliphages
  • groundwater discharges
  • human enteric viruses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Pollution
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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