Objective comparison of quantitative imaging modalities without the use of a gold standard

John W. Hoppin, Matthew A. Kupinski, George A. Kastis, Eric Clarkson, Harrison H. Barrett

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


Imaging is often used for the purpose of estimating the value of some parameter of interest. For example, a cardiologist may measure the ejection fraction (EF) of the heart in order to know how much blood is being pumped out of the heart on each stroke. In clinical practice, however, it is difficult to evaluate an estimation method because the gold standard is not known, e.g., a cardiologist does not know the true EF of a patient. Thus, researchers have often evaluated an estimation method by plotting its results against the results of another (more accepted) estimation method, which amounts to using one set of estimates as the pseudogold standard. In this paper, we present a maximum-likelihood approach for evaluating and comparing different estimation methods without the use of a gold standard with specific emphasis on the problem of evaluating EF estimation methods. Results of numerous simulation studies will be presented and indicate that the method can precisely and accurately estimate the parameters of a regression line without a gold standard, i.e., without the x axis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)441-449
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2002
Event17th International Conference on Information Processing in Medical Imaging (IPMI'01) - Davis, CA, United States
Duration: Jun 1 2001Jun 1 2001


  • Cardiac ejection fraction
  • Estimation
  • Modality comparison
  • Regression analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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