Nutraceutical synergism: Pycnogenol® and coenzyme Q10 enhance cardiovascular health

Ronald Ross Watson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Frequently, dietary supplements, vitamins and nutraceuticals are studied and recommended as sole sources of therapy, based upon their individual activities. Scientifically, studies of multiple agents, especially in humans, are infrequent because of the difficulty in asserting mechanisms of action. However, foods are complex mixtures of water- and fat-soluble antioxidants, providing key functions in health promotion and interacting to maintain antioxidant homeostasis. In prevention and treatment of disease mixtures, two or more dietary supplements should be more effective than each individual one. Therefore, we evaluated the published literature and some initial research suggesting that Pycnogenol® and coenzyme Q10, water- and lipid-soluble antioxidants respectively, may have synergies to promote heart health.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)67-70
Number of pages4
JournalEvidence-Based Integrative Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2005
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Complementary and alternative medicine


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