Venomous snake bite adversely affects millions of people yearly, but few animal models allow for the determination of toxicodynamic timelines with hemotoxic venoms to characterize the onset and severity of coagulopathy or assess novel, site-directed antivenom strategies. Thus, the goals of this investigation were to create a rabbit model of subcutaneous envenomation to assess venom toxicodynamics and efficacy of ruthenium-based antivenom administration. New Zealand White rabbits were sedated with midazolam via the ear vein and had viscoelastic measurements of whole blood and/or plasmatic coagulation kinetics obtained from ear artery samples. Venoms derived from Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus, Bothrops moojeni, or Calloselasma rhodostoma were injected subcutaneously, and changes in coagulation were determined over three hours and compared to samples obtained prior to envenomation. Other rabbits had ruthenium-based antivenoms injected five minutes after venom injection. Viscoelastic analyses demonstrated diverse toxicodynamic patterns of coagulopathy consistent with the molecular composition of the proteomes of the venoms tested. The antivenoms tested attenuated venom-mediated coagulopathy. A novel rabbit model can be used to characterize the onset and severity of envenomation by diverse proteomes and to assess site-directed antivenoms. Future investigation is planned involving other medically important venoms and antivenom development.
- snake venom
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry