Nonpharmacologic treatments of insomnia

R. R. Bootzin, M. L. Perlis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

108 Scopus citations


Nonpharmacologic treatments that have been evaluated for insomnia are reviewed. These include sleep hygiene techniques, stimulus control instructions, sleep restriction, chronotherapy, bright light therapy, relaxation training, biofeedback, paradoxical intention, and cognitive therapy. Comparative studies of the different treatments indicate considerable overlap in effectiveness. Direct comparisons between treatments have shown stimulus control instructions to be more effective than either relaxation training or paradoxical intention. Further research is needed on the tailoring of treatments to patient needs, as are more detailed comparisons between pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)37-41
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Clinical Psychiatry
Issue number6 SUPPL.
StatePublished - 1992

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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