Nonlinear response amplification mechanisms for low doses of natural product nanomedicines: Dynamical interactions with the recipient complex adaptive system

Iris R. Bell, Barbara Sarter, Mary Koithan, Leanna J. Standish, Prasanta Banerji, Pratip Banerji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


The purpose of the present paper is (a) to outline the self-organized, complex adaptive network nature of the organism as recipient of nanomedicines; (b) to propose several nonlinear endogenous amplification processes by which pulsed low doses of traditional, homeopathically-manufactured natural product nanomedicines may stimulate a return toward healthier function; and (c) to discuss their potential relevance to novel, but safer than conventional dosing strategies for contemporary nanomedicines. Homeopathy is an over 200-year-old system of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) that uses low doses of natural plant-, mineral-, and animal-sourced nanomedicines. Homeopathic manufacturing is "green", with mechanical grinding in lactose and agitation in ethanol-water as primary reagents. Agitation within glass containers at room temperature may also contribute nanosilica and nanosilicon as drug delivery vehicles and biological amplifiers. The medicine selection is matched to the recipient organism's systemic patterns of dysfunction and pulsed in the timing of the discrete doses. Endogenous amplification processes within the recipient organism may involve hormesis, time-dependent sensitization, and/or stochastic resonance. Effects are adaptive and systemically diffuse, i.e., causally indirect, rather than pharmacological and local, i.e., direct. All of these nonlinear response processes require interaction of the nanoparticle (NP) dose with the organism as a complex adaptive system. The pulsed NP dose serves as a low intensity salient danger signal for the organism to make network-wide adaptive changes that can lead to healing. The historically safe therapeutic approach of homeopathic nanomedicine dosing avoids risks of high, continuous doses and cumulative toxicity that contemporary nanomedicine researchers are now trying to solve while using NPs as if they were conventional bulk drugs. Integrating the insights, technical procedures, and clinical dosing approaches from modern and homeopathic nanomedicine could lead to major advances in the field for more effective and safer translational applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number179
JournalJournal of Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2013


  • Complex adaptive systems
  • Homeopathy
  • Hormesis
  • Nanomedicine
  • Nanoparticles
  • Nonlinear dynamical systems
  • Stochastic resonance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Pharmaceutical Science


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