Nonlinear optical and electro-optic properties of hybrid sol-gels doped with organic chromophores

Hongxi Zhang, Dong Lu, Mahmoud Fallahi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


This paper reports a systematic investigation on the nonlinear and electro-optic properties of hybrid sol-gel doped with azo-type chromophores. The host is based on photosensitive sol-gel prepared from 3-(methacryloxy)propyl trimethoxysilane-zirconium (or aluminum) oxide (MAPTMS-Zr(Al)) hybrid system. The chromophores are incorporated into the hybrid sol-gel as both guest and side-chain. Second harmonic generation experiment is conducted to optimize the poling parameters for the active sol-gel films. The stability of the second-order nonlinear optical coefficients is investigated by temporal decay test and heat-cool cycling experiment at elevated temperature. Electro-optic channel waveguides have been fabricated by direct ultra-violet exposure, direct blue laser writing, and reverse-mesa methods. Electro-optic effect of the waveguides is measured at 1550 nm and optical intensity modulation has been demonstrated. All the results show that the hybrid sol-gels are promising media for electro-optic devices for integrated optics in both performance and fabrication flexibility.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)992-999
Number of pages8
JournalOptical Materials
Issue number8-9
StatePublished - Jun 2006


  • Electro-optic effect
  • Hybrid sol-gel
  • Optical waveguide
  • Second harmonic generation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Spectroscopy
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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