Noncovalent Interaction of Graphene with Heterocyclic Compounds: Benzene, Imidazole, Tetracene, and Imidazophenazines

Eugene Zarudnev, Stepan Stepanian, Ludwik Adamowicz, Victor Karachevtsev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Noncovalent functionalization of graphene with organic molecules offers a direct route to multifunctional modification of this nanomaterial, leading to its various possible practical applications. In this work, the structures of hybrids formed by linear heterocyclic compounds such as imidazophenazine (F1) and its derivatives (F2-F4) with graphene and the corresponding interaction energies are studied by using the DFT method. Special attention is paid to the hybrids where the attached molecule is located along the graphene zigzag (GZZ) and armchair (GAC) directions. The interaction energies corresponding to the graphene hybrids of the F1-F4 compounds for the two directions are found to be distinct, while tetracene (being a symmetrical molecule) shows a small difference between these binding energies. It is found that the back-side CH3 and CF3 groups have an important influence on the arrangements of F1 derivatives on graphene and on their binding energies. The contribution of the CF3 group to the total binding energy of the F3 molecule with graphene is the largest (3.4 kcal mol-1) (the GZZ direction) while the CH3 group increases this energy of F2 only by 2.0 kcal mol-1 (the GAC direction). It is shown that replacing the carbons with other atoms or adding a back-side group enables one to vary the polarizability of graphene.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1204-1212
Number of pages9
Issue number8
StatePublished - Apr 18 2016


  • DFT
  • graphene
  • interaction energy
  • nanostructures
  • phenazine derivatives

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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