PTA is an established method of revascularization in a variety of medical conditions. It is performed for specific morphologic and clinical indications. PTA is the procedure of choice in Fontaine stage IIB through IV lower extremity ischemia due to iliac and/or femoropopliteal stenosis or short occlusion. Its role is less certain in infrapopliteal disease, although current studies have begun to establish longterm effectiveness. PTA is the procedure of choice for renal revascularization in renovascular hypertension due to fibromuscular disease or non-ostial atherosclerosis, selected cases or renal artery stenosis associated with renal insufficiency, and transplant renal artery stenosis. It is also useful in treating the renovascular component of complex hypertension and may be indicated in severe renal artery stenosis (75%-99%), even in the absence of clinically demonstrable RVHTN. PTA has limited applications in the venous system and only short-term success in the treatment of stenoses in dialysis access fistulas. PTA often serves as an important adjunct to surgical revascularization by providing improved inflow or outflow. PTA is the procedure of choice when anatomically feasible in subclavian steal syndrome. The role of PTA in carotid artery disease, particularly atheromatous disease of the internal carotid artery, is uncertain. The same may be said of PTA for vertebral artery stenosis, although the overwhelming majority of vertebral artery stenosis are morphologically suitable for PTA. PTA and surgery are both effective in the treatment of abdominal angina. There are more data available to verify the long-term patency of thromboendarterectomy and bypass grafts than PTA for mesenteric ischemia. However, since the technical success for PTA is high and since coronary co-morbidity is the most common cause of perioperative mortality in surgical series, PTA should be seriously considered as the procedure of first choice. Serious complications of PTA occur in approximately 5% of cases. Two to three percent of PTA patients have complications requiring surgery or causing a prolongation or alteration of hospital course. The morbidity, mortality, and cost associated with PTA are low. The discomfort is minor, and postprocedural recovery rapid. The major limitations of PTA include its unsuitability for some lesions (long-segment occlusions and stenoses, orifice lesions, eccentric lesions) and postangioplasty restenosis. These problems are being addressed by ongoing laboratory and clinical research. In the near future, it is likely that endoluminal transmural sonography of the vessel wall will help guide our interventions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging