Non-touch thermal air-bearing shaping of x-ray telescope optics

Edward Sung, Brandon Chalifoux, Mark L. Schattenburg, Ralf K. Heilmann

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

8 Scopus citations


Molding glass by using air bearings is a promising procedure for inexpensive and high precision glass shaping. Thin glass sheets are sandwiched between air bearings and pushed flat while being thermally cycled. In this study, a novel device for shaping glass is created and tested using 0.5 mm thick, 100 mm round, Schott D263 wafers. Numerous samples were shaped with varying values for bearing-to-glass gap and maximum temperature, and were measured with a Shack Hartmann metrology tool. Glass was shaped with bearing-to-glass gaps of >50 μm, 36±2.5 μm, and 30.5±2.5 μm. The best peak-to-valley (P-V) flatness achieved is 6.7/3.6±0.5 μm for front/back of the glass sheet, using a gap of 36±2.5 μm. The average steady-state P-V achieved is 12 μm. Using the same device parameters, the best repeatability achieved over the whole 100 mm wafer is 2.7±0.5 μm P-V and 9.5 arcseconds RMS slope error. When looking at 60 mm sections, the repeatability improves to <1 μm P-V and 5±0.5 arcsec.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationOptics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy VI
StatePublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes
EventOptics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy VI - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: Aug 26 2013Aug 29 2013

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferenceOptics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy VI
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego, CA


  • air bearing
  • glass
  • molding
  • non-contact
  • shear force
  • slumping
  • wafer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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