Noise characteristics of heterodyne/homodyne frequency-domain measurements

Dongyel Kang, Matthew A. Kupinski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


We theoretically develop and experimentally validate the noise characteristics of heterodyne and/or homodyne measurements that are widely used in frequency-domain diffusive imaging. The mean and covariance of the modulated heterodyne output are derived by adapting the random amplification of a temporal point process. A multinomial selection rule is applied to the result of the temporal noise analysis to additionally model the spatial distribution of intensified photons measured by a charge-coupled device (CCD), which shows that the photon detection efficiency of CCD pixels plays an important role in the noise property of detected photons. The approach of using a multinomial probability law is validated from experimental results. Also, experimentally measured characteristics of means and variances of homodyne outputs are in agreement with the developed theory. The developed noise model can be applied to all photon amplification processes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number015002
JournalJournal of biomedical optics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2012


  • Biomedical optics
  • Heterodyning
  • Homodyning
  • Image intensifiers
  • Medical imaging
  • Noise

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomedical Engineering


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