Nitrosation, Nitration, and Autoxidation of the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Raloxifene by Nitric Oxide, Peroxynitrite, and Reactive Nitrogen/Oxygen Species

Violeta Toader, Xudong Xu, Adrian Nicolescu, Linning Yu, Judy L. Bolton, Gregory R.J. Thatcher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations

Abstract

The regulation of estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects by selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) provides the basis for use in long-term therapy in cancer chemoprevention and postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, the evidence for carcinogenic properties within this class requires study of potential pathways of toxicity. There is strong evidence for the elevation of cellular levels of NO in tissue treated with SERMs, including the benzothiophene derivative, raloxifene, in part via up-regulation of nitric oxide synthases. Therefore, the reactions of 17β-estradiol (E2), raloxifene, and an isomer with NO, peroxynitrite, and reactive nitrogen/oxygen species (RNOS) generated from NO2-/H2O 2 systems were examined. Peroxynitrite from bolus injection or slow release from higher concentrations of 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) reacted with the benzothiophenes and E2 to give aromatic ring nitration, whereas peroxynitrite, produced from the slow decomposition of lower concentrations of SIN-1, was relatively unreactive toward E2 and yielded oxidation and nitrosation products with raloxifene and its isomer. The oxidation and nitrosation products formed were characterized as a dimer and quinone oxime derivative. Interestingly, the reaction of the benzothiophenes with NO in aerobic solution efficiently generated the same oxidation products. Stable quinone oximes are not unprecedented but have not been previously reported as products of RNOS-mediated metabolism. The reaction of glutathione (GSH) with the quinone oxime gave both GSH adducts from Michael addition and reduction to the corresponding o-aminophenol. The ready autoxidation of raloxifene, observed in the presence of NO, is the first such observation on the reactivity of SERMs and is potentially a general phenomenon of significance to SERM chemical toxicology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1264-1276
Number of pages13
JournalChemical Research in Toxicology
Volume16
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2003
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

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