Neuroprotection strategies in traumatic brain injury: Studying the effectiveness of different clinical approaches

Barbara Buccilli, Albert Alan, Baha Aljeradat, Akmal Shahzad, Yasser Almealawy, Nathan Simbarashe Chisvo, Michelle Ennabe, Martin Weinand

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Background: This review delves into clinical strategies aimed at addressing the complexities of traumatic brain injury (TBI), specifically focusing on pharmaceutical interventions and stem cell therapies as potential avenues for enhancing TBI outcomes. Methods: A thorough review of clinical strategies for TBI management, encompassing pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions, was performed. PubMed, MEDLINE and clinical trial databases were searched to identify relevant studies and clinical trials. Inclusion criteria consisted of studies involving pharmaceutical agents and other clinical approaches (i.e., stem cell therapies) targeting neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and neurodegeneration in TBI. Data from clinical trials and ongoing research initiatives were analyzed to assess the current status and potential of these clinical approaches. Results: Many trials have been conducted to face the challenge that is TBI. These interventions are designed to target critical aspects of secondary brain injury, encompassing neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and neurodegeneration. Despite this, there is no panacea or definitive remedy for this condition. Combining therapies in a patient-tailored approach seems to be our best chance to improve these patients’ outcomes, but systematic protocols are needed. Conclusion: Clinical strategies represent dynamic and continually evolving pathways in TBI management. This review provides an extensive overview of the existing landscape of clinical approaches and promising new studies and outlines their influence on patient outcomes. By highlighting challenges and presenting opportunities, it contributes to the ongoing mission to advance clinical care for individuals impacted by TBI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number29
JournalSurgical Neurology International
StatePublished - 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Excitotoxicity
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Oxidative stress
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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