Neuromodulatory basis of emotion

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


The neural basis of emotion can be found in both the neural computation and the neuromodulation of the neural substrate that mediates behavior. I review the experimental evidence showing the involvement of the hypothalamus, the amygdala, and the prefrontal cortex in emotion. For each of these structures, I show the important role of various neuromodulatory systems in mediating emotional behavior. Generalizing, I suggest that behavioral complexity is caused partly by the diversity and intensity of neuromodulation and hence depends on emotional contexts. Rooting the emotional state in neuromodulatory phenomena allows for its quantitative and scientific study and possibly its characterization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)283-294
Number of pages12
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1999


  • Affect
  • Amygdala
  • Emotion
  • Hypothalamus
  • Neuromodulation
  • Prefrontal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience
  • Clinical Neurology


Dive into the research topics of 'Neuromodulatory basis of emotion'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this