Neuroinflammation is the central nervous system’s response to: injury, infection, and abnormal neural activity. Inflammatory processes are known to mediate many diseases, and recently evidence indicates that neuroinflammation underlies hearing disorders such as presbyacusis, middle-ear disease, ototoxicity, noise-induced hearing loss, and tinnitus. This chapter provides a review of the role of neuroinflammation in the etiology and treatment of tinnitus. Specifically, our research team has demonstrated that both tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and calpain signaling pathways are involved in noise-induced tinnitus and that blocking them yielded therapeutic effects on tinnitus. Other efforts such as controlling acute inflammatory response via specialized pro-resolving mediators may help provide insight into preventing and treating tinnitus-related inflammatory processes.